“O Muslims’ fasting is prescribed for you just as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become fearful.”(Al Baqarah 183)
Before proceeding with the masa'il (rules) related to Ramadhan, it is best to narrate some of the fadha'il (excellences and virtues) of Ramadhan. Knowledge of the virtues will develop the understanding of the value and importance of this most blessed month, creating enthusiasm and
eagerness, which in turn will result, Insha-Allah, in proper fulfillment of the laws, etiquette and demands of Ramadhan. Abu Saeed Khudri t narrates that Rasulullah r said :
“The Doors of the Heavens are opened up on the first night of Ramadhan. Not a single door (among the doors of Heaven) is then closed until the last night of Ramadhan.
For every salaah performed (this refers to Tarawih salaah) during the nights of Ramadhan, Allah I records one and a half thousand good deeds for every Sajdah (of that salaah). In addition, for the fasting person Allah I creates in Jannah a palace of red Ya’qut (a precious stone of Jannah). This palace will have seven thousand entrances (so huge will be the entrances) in each entrance will be a mansion of gold adorned with red Ya’qut.
When a Muslim fasts the first day of Ramadhan, Allah I forgives all his sins committed from the first day of the previous Ramadhan. Daily (during Ramadhan) from the time of Fajr salaah until sunset, seventy thousand Mala’ikah (Angels) supplicate for their forgiveness.
In return for every Sajdah which the fasting person makes of any salaah, whether during the day or night, they will obtain (such a wonderful) massive tree that a horseman will take five hundred years to pass under its shade.”
O people there comes upon you a great month, a most blessed month, in which lies a night greater in reward than one thousand months. Allah I has made compulsory fasting in this month and has decreed wakefulness at night (Tarawih salaah) sunnah. Whosoever tries drawing nearer to Allah I by performing any Nafl (optional) deed in this month, for him shall be such a reward, as if he had performed a Fardh (compulsory) deed any other time of the year.
Moreover, whomsoever performs a Fardh, for him shall be the reward of seventy Faraidh, in any other time of the year. This is indeed the month of patience, and the reward for true patience is Jannah; it is the month of sympathy with one’s fellow people; it is the month wherein a true believer’s rizq (provision) is increased. Those who want to please their Lord, should in great quantity recite the Kalimah Tayyibah:

‘LA ILAHA ILLALLAH’, and make plenty
‘ISTIGHFAR’ (beg Allah’s I forgiveness). As for those, without which you cannot make do, you should beg Allah I for entry into Jannah and seek refuge with Him from the fire of Jahannam.
When the month of Ramadhan begins, the doors of Jannah are opened and the doors of Jahannam are closed and the Shayatin are chained up. Fasting helps us to judge our strength in controlling our lust, greed and passion. It teaches us self discipline so that we gain control over the factors which Satan uses as his tools against mankind. Fasting is a weapon and just as any other weapon is useless, unless the user knows how to use it, the same is with fasting. This book has been written with the aim of teaching Muslims how they can use the weapon of Fasting in
a manner that is correct and beneficial in their war against Satan, thereby attaining the pleasure of Allah I. Even scientists agree that mankind require a rest period due to ‘mental fatigue’. Allah I, The All Knowing, The Wise, Our Creator, created us and knows that we are bodily weak, and spiritually feeble, in need of occasions to boost and recharge our weak Iman so that we may adhere to the commands of Allah I in the way shown to us by our beloved Prophet Rasulullah SAW

Verily, Allah I and His angels send mercy upon those who eat Suhur.
Eat Suhur because in Suhur there is barakah

The fish in the sea seek forgiveness for those fasting until they break
their fast. Allah I decorates Jannah every day and then says, “The
time is near when my pious servants shall cast aside the great trials and
come to me.” During each day and night of Ramadhan, Allah I sets
free a great number of souls from hell. In addition, for every Muslim,
during each day and night, at least one du’a is certainly accepted.
Insha Allah

Saum is a shield, as long as the fasting person does not tear it up.
Note: Fasting is a protection from Shaytan and from Allah’s I
punishment in the Hereafter. However, one who indulges in sins;
such as lying, backbiting etc., whilst fasting; these sins then become
the cause of the fast becoming wasted. Fasting is a shield and a
powerful fortress. All good deeds are for the one who renders them,
but fasting is exclusively for Allah I. I swear by that being in whose
possession is the life of Muhammad r! The odour of the mouth of a
fasting person is sweeter to Allah I than the fragrance of musk.
Fasting is exclusively for Allah I, the reward of it (being limitless) no
one knows besides Allah I. Mishkat

Whosoever gives something to a fasting person in order to break the
fast, for them there shall be forgiveness for their sins and emancipation
from the fire of Jahannam, and for him (the one who gives) shall be the
same reward as for them (whom they fed), without that persons (the
one who was fed) reward being diminished in the least. Whoever gave
a person who fasted water to drink, Allah I shall give them a drink
from His fountain on the day of Judgement, where after they shall
never again feel thirsty until they enter Jannah. The fasting person
experiences two occasions of delight; at the time of Iftar and at the
time they meet their Rabb.
Prayer made by a fasting person at the time of breaking fast is

Whoever stands in prayer and worship in the nights of Ramadhan, with
Iman and with sincere hope of gaining reward, all his previous sins will
be forgiven. Allah I has ordained fasting in Ramadhan compulsory,
and I have decreed (by the command of Allah I) wakefulness at night
(tarawih, etc.) Sunnah. Whomsoever, in the state of Iman and with hope
of gaining reward, fasts in Ramadhan and stays awake at night emerges
from sin, purified as the day when their mother gave birth to them.
For every salaah performed during the nights of Ramadhan, Allah I
records one and a half thousand good deeds for every Sajdah.

Whoever stands in prayer in the night of power with Iman and with
sincere hope of gaining reward all his previous sins are forgiven. Look
for the night of power amongst the odd numbered nights of the last ten
days of Ramadhan.
One aim of this book is to briefly guide those who wish to learn and also
to answer common queries. It is also hoped that the misrepresentations
and incorrect beliefs regarding this beautiful gift of fasting from Allah I
are cleared.

1. The usual principle on which the determination of the Islamic months
are based, has always been the sighting of the moon. (Ru’ya)
2. It is possible to prepare correct timetables showing sunset, Sunrise,
Zawaal and salaah times, but it is not possible to prepare timetables
for the sighting of the moon. The timetable is unable to provide the
human act of sighting the moon essential for the commencement
of the Islamic month.
3. The ‘Birth’ of the moon or assumed feasibility of sighting the moon
are not the principles for determining the Islamic months.
4. If the moon is not sighted due to poor weather conditions,
Rasulullah r, commanded that the month be completed with
thirty days. This has been the practice of the Ummah for the past
years since Rasulullah SAW.

O Allah! Let the crescent moon appear over us
with security and Iman; with peace and Islam;
and with ability for us to practice
such actions which You love.
(O’ Moon!) My Creator and Your Creator is Allah.

1. It is incumbent on Muslims to search for the moon of Ramadhan on
the end of the 29th of Sha’ban.
2. The testimony of a fasiq (flagrant transgressor) regarding the
sighting of the moon is not acceptable.
3. The testimony of a person (whose personal condition is not
known) is acceptable according to Imam Abu Hanifah (R.A.).
4. If someone sees the moon of Ramadhan alone, but for some
reason his testimony was rejected, he will have to fast on that day.
If he does not, he will have to observe Qadha of the fast. However,
there is no Kaffarah on him in this case, if he completes thirty days
for Ramadhan and the moon for Eid was not sighted, he will have
to continue fasting with the people even if it means that he fasts for
thirty one days.
5. The moon for Sha’ban was sighted. The month of Rajab was
completed with thirty days and Ramadhan was commenced
without the moon of Ramadhan being sighted. At the end of 28th
day of Ramadhan the moon or Shawwal was sighted. In this case
the people have to make Qadha of one fast.
6. The moon for Sha’ban was not sighted. However, the month was
completed with thirty days and Ramadhan was commenced
without the moon of Ramadhan being sighted so Sha`ban was also
30 days. At the end of the 28th day of fasting the moon for Shawwal
was sighted. In this case two fasts have to be made Qadha.
7. One should not take offence if one’s report of sighting of the moon
is not accepted by the scholars. Non-acceptance of information
regarding the sighting of the moon is not always because of the
reporters being a fasiq or unreliable. At times the sighting of a single
person or even of a few persons is not acceptable to the Shariah.
Thus, rejection of testimony is based on Shari grounds.
8. If the sky is not clear and thirty days of Ramadhan have passed then
in declaring Eid-ul-Fitr there is no difference of opinion even if one
person testified for the commencement of Ramadhan.
9. There is no validity in seeing the moon in the day, whether it be
before or after Zawaal the moon that will be regarded as the moon
of the coming night can only be seen at night.

1. Fasting in the month of Ramadhan is one of the five pillars of Islam.
2. Fasting in the month of Ramadhan is FARDH upon every Muslim,
male and female who is sane and mature.
3. Almighty Allah I has promised great reward for those that fast,
whilst severe punishment for those that do NOT fast in the month
of Ramadhan.
4. Fasting has many physical, moral and social benefits. However,
Allah I has made fasting compulsory so that we become pious,
Allah I fearing and Allah I conscious.
5. Fasting in ISLAM means to stay away from EATING, DRINKING
and COHABITATION (sex) from Subhus Sadiq (true dawn) to
sunset with a Niyyah (intention) of Sawm (fasting).

1. The Niyyah of fasting is NECESSARY. If a person stays away from all
those things that invalidate one's fast without a Niyyah, the fast will
NOT be valid.
2. It is not necessary to express the Niyyah verbally as Niyyah means
to intend. Thus, the intention at heart will suffice. However, it is
better to express the Niyyah verbally also.
3. The time for Niyyah lasts upto midday for Fardh Mu'ayyan, Wajib
Mu'ayyan, Sunnah or Mustahab fasts. The hours of a day are from
Subh Sadiq to sunset.
4. The Niyyah for Fardh Ghair Mu'ayyan and Wajib Ghair Mu'ayyan
should be made before Subh Sadiq.

It is Masnun (Sunnah) to partake of Suhur during the last portion of the
night. It is a means of attaining great blessings and Thawab. The Sunnah
will be attained if one partakes of Suhur at any time after midnight. But
it is better and desirable to partake of Suhur in the last portion of the
night. If the Mu’adhdhin has called out the Adhan before its time, it will
not be prohibited to partake of Suhur till just before Subh Sadiq
appears. It will suffice if one makes an intention to fast in ones mind
after the Suhur. Delaying Suhur to such an extent that there is fear of
the appearance of Subh Sadiq, should be avoided. To partake of Suhur
at its correct time and then spend time chewing or smoking till the last
minute should be avoided.

A person partaking in Suhur during the middle of the night (i.e. before
the time of Suhur) deprives himself of the complete Thawab of
Suhur through this action.
Rasulullah r is reported to have said: “Verily, Allah and His Malaikah
send mercy upon those who eat Suhur”.
Many Ulama agree that to partake of Suhur is Mustahab and many
people are deprived of this reward because of laziness (i.e. not getting
up from one’s sleep to perform this Sunnah).
Another Hadith indicates that the difference between our fasting and
that of the Ahlul-Kitab (Jews and Christians) lies in partaking of Suhur.
The following are blessings of Suhur:
a) In it, the Sunnah if followed
b) Through it, we oppose the ways of Ahlul-Kitab, which we are at all
times called upon to do.
c) It provides strength for Ibadah.
d) It promotes more sincerity in Ibadah.
e) It aids in the elimination of bad temper
f) Suhur is a time when prayers are accepted.
g) It gives one the opportunity to remember Allah I, make dhikr and
Lift up the hands to him in du`a.
The following intention for the Fast has to be expressed during the night.

Sahl Bin Sa’d t reported that Rasulullah said: “People will remain
prosperous as long as they hasten with Iftaar” (i.e. they break their fast
immediately when the time for Iftaar enters).
It is Sunnah to make Iftaar (to break one’s fast) immediately after
sunset. One should not delay in Iftaar. It is indeed harmful if one
partakes in the Iftaar meal for so long, that he misses his Maghrib
salaah. It is better to break the fast in the Masjid, so that the Maghrib
salaah is not missed. To perform Maghrib salaah at home, so that one
can indulge in the provisions of Iftaar while missing the blessings of
salaah with Jama’ah, is a shameful act.

“O Allah for You have I fasted, in You do I believe, and on You do I
rely and now I break this fast with food coming from You.”

There are Eight types of Fasts . They are as follows:
1. FARDH MU-'AYYAN: Fasting for the whole month of Ramadhan
once a year.
2. FARDH GHAIR MU-'AYYAN: The duty upon one to keep QADHA
of a fast missed in the month of Ramadhan with or without a valid
3. WAJIB MU-'AYYAN: To vow to keep a fast on a specific day or
date for the pleasure of Allah I, upon the fulfilment of some wish
or desire
4. WAJIB GHAIR MU-'AYYAN: To vow or pledge to keep a fast
without fixing any day or date, upon the fulfilment of a wish. Those
fasts which are kept for breaking one's Qasm (oath) also fall under
this category.
5. SUNNAH: Those fasts which Rasulullah kept and encouraged
others to keep, e.g., fasting on the 9th and 10th of Muharram, and
the 9th of Dhil Hijjah, etc.
6. MUSTAHAB: All fasts besides Fardh, wajib and Sunnah are
Mustahab, eg., fasting on Mondays and Thursdays.
7. MAKRUH: Fasting ONLY on the 9th or 10th of Muharram or
Fasting ONLY on Saturdays.
8. HARAM: It is Haram to fast on FIVE days during the year. They
are Eidul Fitr, Eidul Adhaa and three days after Eidul Adha.

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