6/13/2009

UMAR IS THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD SAW ADVOCATE

UMAR IBN KHATTAB
Born.

Umar was born in Mecca. His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hatmah bint Hasham she was from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. He is said to have belonged to a middle class family. In his youth he use to tending his father’s camels in the plains near Mecca, his father was famous because of his intelligence in his tribe. He was a middle class merchant, he was ruthless man and emotional polytheist often use to treat Umar badly. During his reign once Umar said; "My father Al-Khittab was a ruthless man he use to take hard work from, if I didn’t worked he use to beat me and when I use to work he use to make me exhausted." . In his youth Umar learnt to read and write, being literate was considered to be uncommon in those times. Though not a poet but he developed love for poetry and literature. According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage, Umar learnt martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. He was tall and physically powerful and was soon to became a renowned wrestler.Umar's clan of Banu Adi, which was responsible for arbitrations among the tribes. Umar was a gifted orator, and due to his intelligence and overwhelming personality soon after his father's death he replaced him as an arbitrator of conflicts among the tribes. In addition to it, Umar followed the traditional profession of Quraish. He became a merchant and had several journeys to Syria, where he is said to have met the various scholars and analyzed the Roman society closely. As a merchant he was never much successful.Drinking alcohol was very common among the Quraish. Umar was also fond of drinking in his pre-Islamic days.

In 610 Muhammad started delivering the message of Allah, as for other people of Mecca Umar too opposed Islam. He resolved to defend the traditional, polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was most adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting the Muslims.[13] Umar was the first man who resolved that Muhammad had to be murdered to finish Islam.[14] Umar firmly belived in unity of Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord among Quraish.
Due to the persecution at the hands of Quraish Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Abyssinia a small group of Muslims migrated, this migration made Umar feel worried about the unity and future of Quraish, he thus decided to assassinate Muhammad to get rid of the division that was created due to Islam among the people of Mecca.

Umar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia. According to the most popular Sunni version of the story, recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sirah, ` On the way to murder Muhammad, Umar met a Muslim who told him to set his own house in order first, as his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Upon arriving at her house, `Umar found his sister and brother in law Saeed bin Zaid(Umar's his cousin), reciting the verses of the Qur'an. He started beating his brother in law savagely. When his sister came to rescue her husband he also beat her until she started bleeding. Seeing her sister now, he calm down and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. She gave him the paper on which written the verses of Surah Ta-Ha. He was so struck by the verses that he accepted Islam that day. He then went to Muhammad with the same sword and accepted Islam. Umar was 27 when he accepted Islam . Following this `Umar went to inform the chief of Quraish, Amr ibn Hisham, about his acceptance of Islam. According to one account, Umar, thereafter prayed openly at the Kaaba as the Quraish chiefs, Amr ibn Hisham and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb reportedly watched in anger.[19] According to the same account, this further helped the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly, since it is said that no one dared to interfere with Umar when he was openly praying. Umar’s conversion to Islam gave power to Islam in Mecca, it was after him, that Muslims first time offered prayers openly in Masjid al-Haram. Abdullah bin Masoud said:“ , Umar’s embracing Islam was our victory ,his migration to Medina was our success and his reign blessing of Allah, we didn’t offered prayers in Al-Haram Mosque until Umar accepted Islam ,when he accepted Islam Quraish were compelled to let us pray in the Mosque. ”
All these things earned for Umar the title of Farooq. Farooq is the one who makes a difference. Umar's acceptance of Islam had made a big difference for Islam and Muslims.
Hijrah to Madinah
In 622 due to growing popularity of Islam in the city of to Yathrib (later renamed Medinat an-Nabi, or simply Medina) Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Medina, Muslims usually migrated at night due to fear of Quraish’s resistance to that migration, but Umar is reported to have migrated openly during day time saying; Any one who want to make his wife widow and his children orphan, should come and meet me there behind that cliff." Umar migrated to Medina, accompanied by his cousin and brother in law Saeed ibn Zaid.
Madinah became the new center of Islam and from thereafter Islam grew rapidly across Arabia. When Prophet Muhammad arrived in Medinah, he paired off each immigrant (Muhajir) with one of the residents of Medina (Ansari), joining Muhammad ibn Maslamah with Umar making them brothers in faith. This Muhammad ibn Muslamah later in Umar's reign would be assign the office of chief inspector of Accountability department. In Madinah, Umar was one of two chief advisers to Muhammad, the other being Abu Bakr. He remained with Muhammad on ever event and Muhammad often use to take his advises over the matters. It was not that the Messenger always followed Umar’s Consultation but he still utilized him on many occasions. Muslims remained in peace in Medina for about 1 year before the Quraish raised an army to attack Medina. In 624 Umar participated in the first Battle between Muslims and Quraish of Mecca i.e Battle of Badr.In 625 he participated in The Battle of Uhud. In the second phase of Battle when Khalid ibn Walid’s Cavalry attacked Muslims at rear changing the victory of Muslims in to defeat and rumors of Muhammad’s death were spread many Muslim warriors routed from the battle field Umar too initially routed but hearing that Muhammad is still alive he went to Muhammad at Uhud hill and prepared for the defenses of the hill to keep Quraishi army down the hill.. Later in the year Umar was a part of campaign again the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. In 625 Umar’s daughter Hafsah was married to Muhammad. Later In 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Battle of Banu Qurayza. In 628 Umar participated in Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and was made one of the witness over the pact.]. In 628 he was a part of Muslim’s campaign to Khaybar. In 629 Muhammad sent Amr ibn al-A’as to Zaat-ul-Sallasal from where he called for reinforcement and Prophet Mohammad sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah with reinforcement, under him were serves Abu Bakr and Umar they attacked and defeated the enemy . In 630 when Muslims armies rushed for the Conquest of Mecca he was part of that army. Later in 630 he was part of Battle of Hunayn and Siege of Ta'if. He was part of Muslim's army that went for campaign of Tabuk under Muhammad's command and he was reported to have given half of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition. He also participated in a farewell Hajj of Muhammad in 631.

Muhammad died on 8 June 632. Umar was full of grief upon hearing the news, Umar, the devoted disciple, couldn't accept the reality that the "Messenger of God" has died. It is said that he promised to strike the head of any man who would say that he died. At this point Abu Bakr is reported to have come out to the Muslim community and gave his famous speech which included: "If anyone worshipped Muhammad, let them know that Muhammad is dead, but if anyone worshipped God, then let them know that God is living and cannot die."Abu Bakr then recited these verses from the Qur'an: "Muhammad is but a messenger; messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. If, then, he dies or is killed, will you turn back on your heel?". Hearing this from Abu Bakr, the most senior disciple of Muhammad, Umar then fell down on his knees in great sense of sorrow and acceptance of the reality. Sunni Muslims say that this denial of Muhammad's death was occasioned by his deep love for Muhammad.
Umar's political genius first manifested as the architect of the caliphate after Muhammad died in 8 June 632. While the funeral of Muhammad was being arranged a group of Muhammad's followers who were natives of Medina, the Ansar (helpers), organised a meeting on the outskirts of the city, effectively locking out those companions known as Muhajirs (The Emigrants) including Umar. Umar found out about this meeting at Saqifah Bani Saadah, and taking with him two other Muhajirs, Abu Bakr and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, proceeded to the meeting, presumably to head off the Ansar's plans for political domination. Arriving at the meeting Umar was faced with a unified community of tribes from the Ansar who refused to accept the leadership of the Muhajirs. . However Umar was undeterred in his belief the caliphate should be under the control of the Muhajirs,. Though the Khazraj were in disagreement, Umar after strained negotiations lasting up to one or two days, brilliantly divided the Ansar into their old warring factions of Aws and Khazraj tribes, Umar resolved the divisions by placing his hand on that of Abu Bakr as a unity candidate for those gathered in the Saqifah, most others gathered at the Saqifah followed suit with the exception of the Khazraj tribe and their leader, Sa'd ibn 'Ubada, whose tribe was ostracized. The Khazraj tribe is said to have posed no significant threat as there were sufficient men of war from the Medinan tribes such as the Banu Aws to immediately organize them into a military bodyguard for Abu Bakr.

The creation of the islamic caliphate would be one of Umar's most enduring legacies, and its significance to world history is hard to overestimate. However Umar himself was characteristically guarded about his own creation, the western scholar Dr.Wilferd Madelung in his book The Succession to Muhammad summarising Umar's contribution.Umar judged the outcome of the Saqifa assembly to be a falta [translated by Madelung as 'a precipitate and ill-considered deal'because of the absence of most of the prominent Muhajirun, including the Prophet's own family and clan, whose participation he considered vital for any legitimate consultation (shura, mashwara). It was, he warned the community, to be no precedent for the future. Yet he also defended the outcome, claiming that the Muslims were longing for Abu Bakr as for no one else. He apologized, moreover, that the Muhajirun present were forced to press for an immediate oath of allegiance since the Ansar could not have been trusted to wait for a legitimate consultation and might have proceeded to elect one of their own after the departure of the Mekkans. Another reason for Umar to censure the Saqifa meeting as a falta was no doubt its turbulent and undignified end, as he and his followers jumped upon the sick Khazraji leader Sa'd bin Ubada in order to teach him a lession, if not to kill him, for daring to challenge the sole right of Quraysh to rule. This violent break-up of the meeting indicates, moreover, that the Ansar cannot all have been swayed by the wisdom and eloquence of Abu Bakr's speech and have accepted him as the best choice for the succession, as suggested by Caetani. There would have been no sense in beating up the Khazraji chief if everybody had come around to swearing allegiance to Umar's candidate. A substantial number of the Ansar, presumably of Khazraj in particular, must have refused to follow the lead of the Muhajirun.
During Abu Bakr's short reign as caliph he was mostly remained occupied with Ridda wars, Umar was one of his chief advisers and secretary. Umar along with Khalid, probably was the architect and main strategist behind the collapse of rebellion in Arabia. Though at the beginning due to the apprehensive situation in Arabia Umar was opposing the military operations against the rebel tribes, it was to enjoy their support in case of any possible foreign invasion by Romans or Persian, but later he seem to agree with Abu Bakr's warlike strategies to crush rebellion. Khalid ibn Walid by late 632 had successfully united Arabia after consecutive victories against rebels. Later during his own reign, Umar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the conquered land rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare. Prior to Battle of Yamamah, Umar pressurized Abu Bakr to call back Khalid, who had killed Malik ibn Nuwayrah, a rebel chief who was a state criminal. Umar was reportedly misguided by Malik's brother that Malik was a Muslim and Khalid killed him because he wanted to marry his wife Layla bint al-Minhal, a renowned beauti in Arabia. While Abu Bakr refused to accept Umar's opinion and Umar continue insisting for Khalid disposal even after Khalid's conquest of Iraq. This became a major issue between Abu Bakr and Umar and a spacious chapter in Islamic history. It was Umar who advised Abu Bakr to compile Quran in the form of a book, after the death of 300 memorizers of Quran in Battle of Yamamah. Abu Bakr appointed Umar as his successor prior to his death in 634. He was confirmed in the office thereafter.
Due to his strict and autocratic nature, Umar was not a very popular figure among the notables of Madinah and members of Majlis al Shura, accordingly succession of Umar was initially discouraged by high ranking companions of Abu Bakr.Nevertheless, Abu Bakr decided to make Umar, his successor. Umar, still was well known for his extraordinary will power, intelligence, political astuteness, impartiality, justice and care for poor and underprivileged people. Abu Bakr is reported to have said to the high ranking advisers:“ His (Umar's) strictness was there because of my softness when the weight of Caliphate will be over his shoulders he will remain no longer strict. If i will be asked by the God to whom i have appointed my successor, i will tell him that i have appointed the best man among your men. ” Abu Bakr of fully aware of Umar's power and ability to succeed him. Succession of Umar was thus not as troublesome as any of the others. His was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions to power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. Abu Bakr before his death called Uthman to write his will in which he declared Umar his successor. In his will he instructed Umar to continue the conquests on Iraq and Syrian fronts. Abu Bakr's decision would proved to be crucial in the strengthening of the nascent Islamic empire. Sword of Caliph Umar, with later hilt.On 22nd of August Caliph Abu Bakr died. The same day Umar assumed the office of Caliphate. After the assumption of office as the Caliph, Umar addressed the Muslims in his Inaugural address as:"O ye faithful! Abu Bakr is no more amongst us. He has the satisfaction that he has successfully piloted the ship of the Muslim state to safety after negotiating the stormy sea. He successfully waged the apostasy wars, and thanks to him, Islam is now supreme in Arabia. After Abu Bakr, the mantle of Caliphate has fallen on my shoulders. I swear it before God that I never coveted this office. I wished that it would have devolved on some other person more worthy than me. But now that in national interest, the responsibility for leading the Muslims has come to vest in me, I assure you that I will not run away from my post, and will make an earnest effort to discharge the onerous duties of the office to the best of my capacity in accordance with the injunctions of Islam. Allah has examined me from you and you from me, In the performance of my duties, I will seek guidance from the Holy Book, and will follow the examples set by the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. In this task I seek your assistance. If I follow the right path, follow me. If I deviate from the right path, correct me so that we are not led astray. ” Umar was already not a endearing figure in Medina. Although almost all of the Muslims had given pledge of loyalty to him, nevertheless he was rather more feared than loved. The first challenge for Umar was to win out his subjects and members of Majlis al Shura.[50] Umar was a gifted orator, and he would use his ability to get a soft corner in the hearts of people.On Friday prayers Umar addressed the people as follow:“ Brethren, it has come to my notice that the people are afraid of me..... they say that he (Umar) has become the Caliph now, God knows how hard he will be. Whoever has said this is not wrong in his assessment...... know ye brethren that you will feel a change in me.For those who practice tyranny and deprive others of their rights, I will be harsh and stern, but for those who follow the law, I will be most soft and tender. ” Umar's addresses greatly moved the people. Next time he addressed the people as:“ I will be harsh and stern against the aggressor, but I will be a pillar of strength for the weak. “ I will not calm down until i will put one cheek of a tyrant on the ground and the other under my feet, and for the poor and weak, i will put my cheek on the ground. ” There could be no better definition of the democracy and justice, then the historic words of Umar, over which he laid foundation of his rule:“ By God, he that is weakest among you shall be in my eye the strongest[54], until I have vindicated for him his rights; he that is strongest I will treat as the weakest, until he complies with the law. ”

Umar's stress was on the well being of poor and underprivileged people, as this class made a bulk of any community, the people were soundly moved by Umar's speeches and his popularity grew rapidly and continuously over the period of his reign.[55] In addition to this Umar, in order to improve his reputation and relation with Banu Hashim, the tribe of Ali, delivered to him his disputed estates in Khayber. Though he followed Abu Bakr's decision over the dispute of land of Fidak, continued its status as a state property. In Ridda wars, thousands of prisoners from rebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the expeditions. Umar ordered the general amnesty for the prisoners, and their immediate emancipation.[56] This made Umar quite a popular among the budoiene tribes. With necessary public support with him, Umar took a bold decision of retrieving Khalid ibn Walid from supreme command on Roman front.Khalid ibn Walid, a military genius and then a hero of campaign of Apostasy and conquest of Iraq. Umar dismissed Khalid from high command and appointed Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah as new commander in chief.Even though he was his cousin, the relationship between Khalid and Umar were already tense since the incident of Malik ibn Nuwayrah. There was an air of distrust between Khalid and Umar, which thus resulted in the dismissal of Khalid from supreme command then and later in 638 from military services. There was a huge uproar over this decision of Umar in Madinah, as Khalid was immensely popular among the people due to his military genius. Khalid, rather gave a pledge of loyalty to the new Caliph and keep on serving as an ordinary commander under Abu Ubaidah. He is reported to have said:"If Abu Bakr is dead and Umar is Caliph[60], then we hear and obey."This decision would be one of Umar's decision over which he regretted later. There was inevitably a slowdown in the pace of military operations, as Abu Ubaidah would move slowly and steadily. The conquest of Syria continued under him, Abu Ubaidah being an admirer of Khalid, made him command of cavalry and relyed heavily on his advice during the whole campaign.The government of Umar was more or less a unitary government, where the sovereign political authority was the Caliph. The empire of Umar was divided into provinces and some autonomous territories like in some regions Azerbaijan and Armenia, that had accepted the suzerainty of Caliphate. The provinces administered by the provincial governors or Wali. The selection of which was made personally by Umar, who was very fastidious in it. Provinces were further divided into districts, there were about 100 districts in the empire. Each district or main city was under the charge of a junior governor or Wali, usually appointed by Umar himself, but occasionally they were also appointed by the provincial governor. In some districts there were separate military officers, though the Governor (Wali) was in most cases the Commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province. Every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the conduct of Governors. On assuming office, the Governor was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them.
“ "Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. Do not praise them unduly, lest they fall into the error of conceit. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces, lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. And do not behave as if you were superior to them, for that is tyranny over them." ” Various other strict code of conducts were to be obeyed by the governors and state officials. The principal officers were required to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj, during which people were free to present any complaint against them. In order to minimize the chances of corruption, Umar made it a point to pay high salaries to the staff. Provincial governor received as much as five to seven thousand dirham annually besides their shares of the spoils of war (if they were also the commander in chief of the army of there sector). Under Umar the empire was divided into the following provinces.
Arabia was divided into two provinces, Mecca and Medina; Iraq was divided into two provinces, Basra and Kufa; In the upper reaches of the Tigris and the Euphrates, Jazira was a province; Syria was a province; Umar divided Palestine in two provinces Aylya and Ramlah; Egypt was divided into two provinces, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt; Persia was divided into three provinces, Khorasan; Azarbaijan and Fars. Umar was first to established a special department for the investigation of complaints against the officers of the State. This department acted as Administrative court, where the legal proceedings were personally led by Umar.The Department was under the charge of Muhammad ibn Maslamah, one of Umar's most trusted man. In important cases Muhammad ibn Maslamah was deputed by Umar to proceed to the spot, investigate the charge and take action. Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. On occasions the officers against him complaints were received were summoned to Madinah, and charged in Umar's administrative court. One of Umar's most powerful department was his intelligence department of secret services. Umar's iron fist rule on his empire, is often credited to this institution . His agents were every where, in the army, in the bureaucracy and in the enemy land. For the officials of Umar it was said to be the most fearsome department.
Umar is regarded as one of the greatest political genius in history, While under his leadership, the empire was expanding at a unprecedented rate, he also began to build the political structure that would hold together the vast empire that was being built. He undertook many administrative reforms and closely oversaw public policy. He established an advanced administration for the newly conquered lands, including several new ministries and bureaucracies, and ordered a census of all the Muslim territories. During his rule, the garrison cities (amsar) of Basra and Kufa were founded or expanded. In 638, he extended and renovated the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) in Mecca and the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina. Umar also ordered the expulsion of the Christian and Jewish communities of Najran and Khaybar allowing them to reside in Syria or Iraq. He issued orders that these Christians and Jews should be treated well and allotted them the equivalent land in their new settlements. Umar also forbade non-Muslims to reside in the Hejaz for longer than three days.He was first to establish army as a state department. Umar was founder of Fiqh, the Islamic jurisprudence. He is regarded by sunni Muslims to be one of the greatest Faqih. Umar as a jurist started the process of codifying Islamic Law. In 641, he established Bayt al-mal, a financial institution and started annual allowance for the Muslims. A year later he also started allowance for the poor, underprivileged and old non-Muslim citizens of the empire. As a leader, 'Umar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. In 639, his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year 17 since the Hijra, he decreed that the Islamic calendar should be counted from the year of the Hijra of Prophet Mohammad from Mecca to Madinah. It is widely believe that Umar stressed more on consolidating his power and political influence in the conquered land, rather than persisting conquests. Nevertheless under Umar, The Islamic empire grew at an unprecedented rate. In 638, after the conquest of Syria, Umar dismissed Khalid, his most successful general due to his every growing fame and influence. Later however Umar regretted over his decision. The military conquest were partially terminated between 638-639 during the years of great famine and plague in Arabia and Levant respectively. During his reign Levant, Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan, Eastern Anatolia, almost whole of Sassanid Persian Empire including Bactria, Persia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Caucasus and Makran were annexed to Islamic Empire. Accordiong to one estimate more then 4050 cities were captured during these military conquest.[68] Prior to his death in 644, Umar had ceased all military expeditions apparently to consolidate his rule in Egypt and newly conquered Sassanid Empire (642-644). At his death in November 644, domain of his rule extended from present day Lybia in west to Indus river in east and Oxus river in north.In the year 638, Arabia fall into severe drought followed by a famine. Bedouin people began to die because of hunger and epidemic diseases, as a result of drought and famine hundreds of thousands of people from all over Arabia gathered at Madinah where due to city life and civic sense, food was rationed. Soon the reserves of food at Madinah began to decline, Umar wrote to the provincial governors of Syria, Palestine and Iraq for the aid. State of emergency was declared in Madinah and Arabia. The timely aid of Umar's governors saved life of thousands of people through out Arabia. First governor to respond was Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, the governor of Syria and supreme commander of Rashidun army. The sent a historic letter to Umar saying,“ I am sending you the Caravans whose one end will be here at Syria and the other will be at Madinah. ”
Later Abu Ubaidah paid a personal visit to Madinah and acted as an officer of Disaster management cell, which was headed personally by Umar. Hundreds of thousands of people from desert towns had already gathered in Madinah, once adequate supply of ration reached Madinah, Umar dispatched his men to the routes of Iraq, Palestine and Syria to take the supply caravans to the desert settlements deeper into Arabia, which in turn saved millions from annihilation. For the internally displaced people, Umar hosted a diner every night at Madinah, which according to one estimate every night more then hundred thousand people use to attend.By early 639 conditions begun to improve, Arabia received precipitation and as soon as famine ends, Umar personally supervised the rehabilitation of the displaced people. They were given adequate amount of ration and were exempted from payment of zakat for that year and the next year.While famine was ending in Arabia, many districts in Syria and Palestine were devastated by plague. While Umar was on his way to visit Syria, at Elat, he was received by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, governor of Syria, who informed him about plague and its intensity and he was suggest to go back to Madinah, Umar tried to persuade Abu Ubaidah to come with him to Madinah but he denied to leave his troops in that critical situation. Abu Ubaidah died in 639 due to plague, which also cost the life of 25,000 Muslims in Syria. After plague was weaken in late 639 Umar visited Syria for it political and administrative re-organization, as most of the veteran commanders and governs had died in plague.
Tombstone of Caliph Umar, in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, Medina. The first window from the right gives a view of Umar's grave.In 644, at zenith of his power, Umar was assassinated. It is believed that his assassination was a Persian conspiracy, who were infuriated by Umar's conquest of their empire. The assassination was planed several months ago, in October 644 Umar went for Hajj in Mecca, the assassins started the hoopla of Umar's possible death that year, the massive crowd of congregation was used by the conspirators as a veil to hide themselves. It is related that when Umar stood at the Mount Arafat he heard a voice saying:"O Caliph, never again will you stand on the Mount of Arafat". A companion of Umar, Jabir bin Mutaam is reported to have said:We saw a man standing at the top of the hill and crying 'Verily that is the last Hajj of Umar. He will never come here again."
During one of rituals of Hajj, the Ramy al-Jamarat (stoning of the Devil), some one threw a stone on Umar that wounded his head, a voice was heard that Umar will not attend the Hajj ever again. Amongst the conspirators was Hormuzan, the alleged master mind of the plot. He was Persian commander in Chief and was captured and brought to Umar at Medina where to save his life he apparently converted to Islam. One of Umar's advisors, Ka'ab al-Ahbar, a former Jewish Rabbi, who apparently had converted to Islam, but his conversion is generally doubted by the scholars.Jafinah, the Christian Arab from Iraq, who was also a foster brother of Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, former governors of Busra. The last of the master minds was Piruzan, popularly known as Abu Lulu, he was slave of Mughira ibn Shu'ba, then a governor of Busra. It was Abu Lulu who was assigned the mission of assassinating Umar. According to the plan, before the Fajrprayers (the morning prayers before the dawn) Abu Lulu will enter Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, the main mosque of Madinah where Umar led the prayers and will attack Umar during the prayers, and will fled or will mix with the congregation at mosque. There were Persian children slaves in Madina. Seeing them, Firoz is quoted saying:You have been enslaved at such a tender age. This Umar sees eaten my heart. I will take his heart out".It is clear from the above quote that Pirouz motif was revenge for being taken into slavery at such a young age.I heard that you make windmills; make one for me as well. In a sullen mood, Pirouz said, " Verily I will make such a mill for you, that whole world would remember it ".

As Firoz went away, the Caliph told the people around him that the Persian slave had threatened him. Three days before attack on Umar on 1 November 644, Ka'ab al-Ahbar, is reported to have warned Umar that he will die in three days. On each successive day he further warned him about two days left and then one day left until on 3 November 644, Umar was attacked, while leading the morning prayers, Pirouz stabbed him six times in the belly and last on the navel, that proved fetal. Umar was left profusely bleeding while Abu Lulu tried to fled but people from all sides rushed to capture him, Pirouz who was a soldier prior to being taken into slavery is reported to have wounded twelve other people, six or nine of them later died. At last he was captured but committed suicide from the same dagger. Umar died of the wounds three days later on sunday, 7 November 644.As per Umar's will, he was buried in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi along side Prophet Mohammad and Caliph Abu Bakr.On his death bed Umar vacillated to appoint his successor, however it has been reported that he said that if Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Khalid ibn Walid or Salim, the mawali and freed Persian slave, were alive he would have appointed one of them his successor. Umar finally appointed a committee of six persons comprising,Abdur Rahman bin Awf,Saad ibn Abi Waqqas,Talha ibn Ubaidullah,Uthman ibn Affan,Ali ibn Abi Talib,Zubayr ibn al-Awwam.Their task was to chose a caliph from amongst them. Umar appointed a band of fifty armed soldiers to protect the house where the meeting was proceeding. Umar further instructed that with in three days of his death if the committee failed to elect the caliph owing to any possible dispute, the majority view will be considered and in case the other group persisted they shell be executed. Until the appointment of the next caliph Umar appointed a notable Sahabi, a mawali, Suhayb ar-Rumi (Suhayb the Roman) as a caretaker Caliph. While the historic meeting for selection of caliph was preceding, Abdulrehman ibn Abu Bakr and Abdur Rahman bin Awf revealed that they saw the dagger used by Abu Lulu, the assassin of Umar. A night before Umar's assassination, reported Abdur Rahman bin Awf, he saw Hormuzan, Jafina and Abu Lulu, while they were suspiciously discussing some thing, bewildered by his presence dagger was dropped from them, it was the same two sided dagger. Abudulrehman ibn Abu Bakr, son of late caliph Abu Bakr also confirmed that few days before Umar's assassination, he once saw this dagger with Hurmazan. After the mystery of assassination uncover by the two of the most notable governmental figures, it seemed clear that the assassination was planed by the Persians residing in Madinah. Infuriate by this Umar's younger son Ubaidullah ibn Umar sought to kill all the Persians in Madinah. He killed Hormuzan, Jafinah, and daughter of Umar's assassin Abu Lulu, who is believed to be a Muslim. Ubaidullah was intercepted by the people of Madinah and withholding him from the massacre. Amr ibn al-Aas is said to have intercepted him, convince him to handover his sword. The murder of Jafinah, enraged Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, his foster brother, and he assaulted Ubaidullah ibn Umar and again the companions intervened. It is also believed that Umar daughter Hafsa bint Umar provoked Ubaidullah to take the punitive action. When Umar was informed about the incident, he ordered that Ubaidullah should be imprisoned and the next Caliph should decide his fate.[74] Umar died on 7 November 644, and on 11 November, Uthman succeeded him as the Caliph. After a prolong negotiations the tribunal decided to give blood money to the victims and released Umar's son Ubaidullah, on the ground that after the tragic incident of Umar's assassination people will be further infuriated by execution of his son the very next day.
Umar is regarded as one of the most influential figure in history. He was in true sense, architect Islamic Empire. As a leader, 'Umar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. 'Umar was vigorous, robust and a very tall man, in markets he would tower above the people. The front part of his head was bald, always A'sara Yusran (working with two hands),[75] both his eye's are black, with yellow skin, however, ibn Sa'ad in his book The Book of the Major Classes (Tabaqat al-Kubra) stated that he never knew that 'Umar had yellow skin, except if the people took into criterion a certain part of his life where his color changed because he always ate oil at that part of his life,[ Others say he has reddish-white skin. His teeth were ashnabul asnan (very white shining). He would always color his beard and take care of his hair using a type of plant.

Umar is considered as a political genius, as an architect of Islamic Empire he is regarded as 52nd most influential figure in history. Umar remained politically stagnant during Prophet Mohammad's era, however after his death, it was Umar's brilliance that Abu Bakr was elected Caliph, despite of massive initial confrontations at Saqifah. Umar successfully broke the alliance of the tribes of Madinah who claim Caliphate to be their right in addition cleverly sidelined Ali, paving the way for the succession of Abu Bakr. during Abu Bakr's era, he actively participated as his secretory and main adviser. After succeeding Abu Bakr as caliph, Umar win over the hearts of Baudouin tribes by emancipating all their prisoners and slaves taken during Ridda wars, his excellent oratory skills helped him to heightened his popularity graph, mostly among the poor and underprivileged people. He proved himself as a excellent manager during the year of the great Famine when his dynamic abilities saved millions from starvation. He is best known to built up an efficient administrative structure of the empire, that held together his vast realm. He organized an effective network of intelligence, partly a reason for his strong grip on his bureaucracy. His judicial reforms were fairly modern and advance in nature when compared to contemporary systems of his era. He opposed the construction of present day Suez canal, as it posed threat to the security of Madinah. Twelve hundred years later Great Britain opposed the construction of the canal for the same reason as it then posed threat to its colonies in Indian subcontinent. One of the reason of the compactness of his political rule in the conquered lands is reputed to his policy of tolerance to their religious believes and imposition of far lower taxes on them as compared to Sassanid Persian empire and Byzantine Empire. Their local administration was kept un-touched and several of the former Byzantine and Persian official were retained on their services under Umar's governors. Umar was very painstaking in every matter. His meticulous was evident from his appointment of governors and judges that never let him lose his grip on the government. He never appointed governors for more then two years, for they might get influence in their county. He dismissed his most successful general Khalid ibn Walid, due to his immense popularity and growing influence that he saw menace to his authority. Rather than tenacious conquest he stressed more on consolidating his rule in the conquered land, a fact that saved Byzantine empire from complete disappearance. Umar is reported to have wished an official tour across his domain to personally examine the condition of his subjects. In 641, before the conquest of Persian empire, Umar is reported to have said:“ If i would live few more years, i wish to visit Syria next year, then next Iraq and then the next year Egypt to personally check the conditions of the subjects and inquire whether my mandate is followed or not. ”
It should be noted that at the time, Umar made this statement, Persia was not yet conquered (conquest of Persia begun in 642). He would walk the streets of Medina with a whip in his hand, and it is said that Umar's whip was feared more than the sword of another man. He is famous for covert night tour of the city to know the secret life of his domain, the tradition that later be followed by some of the Abbasid Caliphs and even Mughul rulers of Indian subcontinent.
Pass away of Umar bin Khattab.
Umar pass away in the year 23 Hijriah or 644 Masehi. Moment of Salat at dawn, a origin of Parsi Firuz stab [it] and run amuck [in] mosque with the poisonous knife. its six Others defeated, before Firuz [by] xself also defeated. A lot of anticipation hit the reason of the murder. Definitive, this [is] first murder a moslem by other moslem.

2 comments:

bUUaajOoLL said...

I think Umar Bin Khatab is the real sahabat of Muhammad SAW..thank this interested article..Mr, Yayaq Allohumma Sholli Ala Muhammad

asminatul said...

Umar’s conversion to Islam gave power to Islam in Mecca, it was after him, that Muslims first time offered prayers openly in Masjid al-Haram...Umar bin Khattab is hero..Good history Allohu Hafidz